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生物心理学与神经科学的基础,2013年6月英语四级

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生物心理学与神经科学的基础,2013年6月英语四级

  201三年十二月大学阿尔巴尼亚语肆级考试已终止,此番考试为多题多卷,搜狐指引[微博]频道第一时间采撷整理区别版本试题,供考生参考,以下为斯洛伐克语四级完形填空答案。

This paper published in the January 2012 Hawaii WDSI management and Operations Research Conference

For to know about psychology , one thing that we can never
negative is our brain : how does it work ? So, it’s main idea for this easy to explain this question for all about you .For a clear publishing ,

  201三年五月法语四级完形填空答案:

THE EVOLUTION ROAD MAP FROM THE ORIGIN OF LIFE TO THE INTELLIGENT UNIVERSE

I decide to write this passage from there simple question, for: “how are genes and behavior linked ? “、”how does the body communicate internally ? “、 how does the brain produce behavior and mental process ? “ . And now , let’s go to deal with these question by order .

  Part V Cloze

Feng Liu,ResearchCenterfor Virtual Economy and Digital Sciences,ChinaAcademyofSciences,Beijing100190,China

The first question : how are genes and behavior linked ?

  The human brain is the most complex structure on the universe. It contains 67roughly 100 billion nerve cells, each of 68which has thousands of connections with each other. Their interaction 69controls each of the body’s functions, allows thoughts, perceptions, memories, feelings, and also movement and 70communication. Understanding just how the brain works, in health or in sickness, is one of the 71greatest challenges of our time. What is determined by genes, what is formed by experience? Scientists are investigating all 72aspects of the nervous system. Great progress can be 73expeeted in visualizing and modeling brain functions, as well as in research into their biological basis. Today, it is 74assumed that 30 to 50 percent of human genes exercise their function 75chiefly in the brain. This gives an 76indication of the complexity of the genetic control and 77development. The cause of many nerve diseases lies in 78defects in genes that play a role in development. Half of all genetic 79diseases affect the nervous system. The brain can only reach its full 80capability through interaction with its 81surroundings. Researchers are examining the interaction of genes and 82experiences with regard to the expression and 83fine-tuning of nerve circuits in the brain. How do nerve cell 84processes find their goal? How do different brain areas develop? How do perceiving85 functions mature? Thanks to research, the prevention and cure of may brain diseases seems possible for the first time. Better knowledge of the way the brain processes 86information could, moreover, make new computers possible。

Yue “Jeff” Zhang, California State University, Northridge, USA

For this question , the evolution theory can explain it very well . They said : evolution has fundamentally shaped psychology process because it favors genetic variations that produce adaptive behavior . So this is the fundamental connective between gene and behaviors , but we also want to know why the genes and behavior could be connected ?

Abstract

 And for this question , we should talk about two reason for it .

The Theory of Evolution by Darwin revealed the law of evolution of lives, from primitive to advanced, from simple to complex. Similar evolution can also be seen on the Internet: the four decades of the Internet show that the Internet’s development is not orderless. Instead, through the analogy and contrast between the Internet and human brain structure, evidences show that the evolution of the Internet is highly resembling that of human brains. Enlightened by neurology, we plotted the “virtual brain structure” for the Internet. We found that the Internet has the tendency of infinite expansion and growth, and have come to the conclusion that the Internet will eventually extend to the whole universe. According to the research, we have formed a roadmap of evolution from the origin of life to the Intelligent Universe

First , evolution and natural selection . When the time before our mind first look at world , just the natural behavior can sever us from compaction world , so our lots of behavior had to been write to our genes to prevent stupid behavior which can take dangerous to us . So , too many behaviors had to write in our genes from natural selection .

Introduction

Second , genetics and inheritance . The behavior which write to our genes can transport to next generation , when a behavior that can help human survival in world can help this gene transport to next generation, so the inheritance could be useful for the ‘selfness gene’ . The second question : how does the body communicate internally ?

From the review and examination of the history of the Internet, we have found that the structure of the Internet has strong resemblance to that of human brain. We proposed a structure of the Internet Virtual Brain, and plotted six illustrations of evolution of the Internet, from a primitive one evolved to a mature one.

For a human to live healthful , the corporation between different system is very important for us . And , so important this task is that only brain can take it . For it , the brain coordinates the body’s two communications systems , the nervous system and the endocrine system to communicate with targets throughout the body .

On the special dimension, on the other hand, we noted that the Internet has the tendency of infinite expansion and growth, from the laboratory prototype to national internetwork, intercontinental network, and, through moon explorer and Mars explorer, expanding to outer space. We thus speculate that as time passes, the Internet will expand from the Earth to the whole Solar System, further to the Milky Way galaxy, eventually to the whole universe. This universe that is connected and covered by the Internet is what we call the “intelligent universe” or “the universe as a brain.” We created five figures to illustrate the expansion of the Internet from the Earth to the whole universe.

The third question : how does the brain produce behavior and mental process ?

The Darwinian has proved the process of evolution from the single-cell microbody to human. However, the evolution after human life is still unknown. We attempted to combine the evolution of lives and the evolution of the Internet, to form a roadmap of evolution from the origin of life to the Intelligent Universe. This roadmap will be illustrated in Section 4.

We know that the brain is very important in our body , but we also want to know that : what important function does the different part in our brain control ? It’s not enough to just know about the brain stem and associated structures control many vital body function .

1. The Origin of Life, and the Theory of Evolution

For this , we should talk more about that :

In 1859, C.R. Darwin published his revolutionary book The Origin of Lives, in which he argued that all lives on the Earth evolved from a common ancestor; lives have biological relations.Darwin proposed selection of the nature to explain the cause of evolution, thus established a scientific theory of evolution, revealing the law of the development of lives [1].

First ,the limbic system plays vital roles in motivation emotion and memory ;

The commonly held scientific belief is that the lives on the Earth evolved following such roadmap: from the most primitive non-cell organism, evolved to prokaryotes with cell structure, from prokaryotes with cell structure to Single-celled eukaryotes, and then follow different directions of evolution, there appeared fungi, vegetable kingdom, and animal kingdom. In the animal kingdom, the evolution manifested from the primitive flagellate to multi-cell animal, to chordate, and further to vertebrates. The fishes in the vertebrates evolved to amphibian, then to reptiles, which branched to mammals and birds. A branch of mammals further evolved to one that has high level of intelligence, which is human[2].

Second ,the cerebral system cortex contains highly special modules ;

We will borrow the scientific illustration of the evolution from the primitive non-cell structure to human, to be the first part of our evolution roadmap from the origin of life to the intelligent universe

Third , the front lobes control speech and mental function ;

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