What is music?, 25 June 2001
Author: Low Man from Lafayette, IN
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《A new view of language acquisition》 by Patricia K. Kuhl
Patricia K. Kuhl 是娃娃语言发育方面包车型客车名牌学者，在Ted上有二个大好的录像。
《The Effects of Musical Training on Structural
《Musical Training Shapes Structural Brain Development》
Here we demonstrate structural brain changes after only 15 months of musical training in early childhood, which were correlated with improvements in musically relevant motor and auditory skills. These findings shed light on brain plasticity and suggest that structural brain differences in adult experts (whether musicians or experts in other areas) are likely due to training-induced brain plasticity.
《INCREASED CORPUS CALLOSUM SIZE IN MUSICIANS 》
《Effects of Music Training on the Child’sBrain
and Cognitive Development》
《BRAIN ORGANIZATION FOR MUSIC PROCESSING》
《Music acquisition: effects of enculturation and formal training on
Musical structure is complex, consisting of a small set of elements that combine to form hierarchical levels of pitch and temporal structure according to grammatical rules. As with language, different systems use different elements and rules for combination. Drawing on recent findings, we propose that music acquisition begins with basic features, such as peripheral frequency-coding mechanisms and multisensory timing connections, and proceeds through enculturation, whereby everyday
exposure to a particular music system creates, in a systematic order of acquisition, culture-specific brain structures and representations. Finally, we propose that formal musical training invokes domain-specific processes that affect salience of musical input and the amount of cortical tissue devoted to its processing, as well as domain-general processes of attention and
《MUSICAL TRAINING SHAPES BRAIN ANATOMY AND AFFECTS FUNCTION》
《The power of music: its impact on the intellectual, social and
personal development of children and young people》
Musical Training as a Framework for Brain Plasticity:
Behavior, Function, and Structure
How musical training affects cognitive development: rhythm, reward and other modulating variables
Understanding the Benefits of Musical Training Effects on Oscillatory Brain Activity
Can Musical Training Influence Brain Connectivity? Evidence from Diffusion Tensor MRI
MUSICAL TRAINING MUSICAL TRAINING--INDUCED NEUROPLASTICITY
Musical training, neuroplasticity and cognition
Differentiating maturational and training influences on fMRI activation during music processing
Music Making as a Tool for Promoting Brain Plasticity across the Life Span
Enhanced Cortical Connectivity in Absolute Pitch Musicians: A Model for Local Hyperconnectivity
Musical Training Shapes Structural Brain Development
The Power of Listening Auditory-Motor Interactions in Musical Training
《Tuning In to Sound: Frequency-Selective Attentional Filter in Human Primary Auditory Cortex》
Cocktail parties, busy streets, and other noisy environments pose a difficult challenge to the auditory system: how to focus attention on
selected sounds while ignoring others? Neurons of primary auditory cortex, many of which are sharply tuned to sound frequency, could
help solve this problem by filtering selected sound information based on frequency-content. To investigate whether this occurs, we used
high-resolution fMRI at 7 tesla to map the fine-scale frequency-tuning (1.5 mm isotropic resolution) of primary auditory areas A1 and R
in six human participants. Then, in a selective attention experiment, participants heard low (250 Hz)- and high (4000 Hz)-frequency
streams of tones presented at the same time (dual-stream) and were instructed to focus attention onto one stream versus the other,
switching back and forth every 30 s. Attention to low-frequency tones enhanced neural responses within low-frequency-tuned voxels
relative to high, and when attention switched the pattern quickly reversed. Thus, like a radio, human primary auditory cortex is able to
tune into attended frequency channels and can switch channels on demand.
Finding and Feeling the Musical Beat: Striatal Dissociations between Detection and Prediction of Regularity
As a professional musician, there are two things that happen in films that are likely to make me quite angry. One is a general concern, and the other is a more elemental notion of the nature of music. This movie deals with both quite well.
Just a few years of early musical training benefits the brain later in life
Date:November 5, 2013
Source:Society for Neuroscience (SfN)
Older adults who took music lessons as children but haven’t actively played an instrument in decades have a faster brain response to a speech sound than individuals who never played an instrument. The finding suggests early musical training has a lasting, positive effect on how the brain processes sound.
This is your brain on Vivaldi and Beatles
Date:August 7, 2013
Source:Suomen Akatemia (Academy of Finland)
Listening to music activates large networks in the brain, but different kinds of music are processed differently. A team of researchers has developed a new method for studying music processing in the brain during a realistic listening situation. Using a combination of brain imaging and computer modeling, they found areas in the auditory, motor, and limbic regions to be activated during free listening to music.
Listening to music lights up the whole brain
Date:December 6, 2011
Source:Suomen Akatemia (Academy of Finland)
Researchers have developed a groundbreaking new method that allows to study how the brain processes different aspects of music, such as rhythm, tonality and timbre (sound color) in a realistic listening situation.
Musical training can increase blood flow in the brain
Date:May 7, 2014
Source:British Psychological Society (BPS)
Brief musical training can increase the blood flow in the left hemisphere of our brain. This suggests that the areas responsible for music and language share common brain pathways. Study one involved looking for patterns of brain activity of 14 musicians and nine non-musicians whilst they participated in music and word generation tasks.
Musical training shapes brain anatomy, affects function
Date:November 12, 2013
Source:Society for Neuroscience
New findings show that extensive musical training affects the structure and function of different brain regions, how those regions communicate during the creation of music, and how the brain interprets and integrates sensory information.
When the brain plays music: auditory-motor interactions in music perception and production.
Zatorre RJ1, Chen JL, Penhune VB.
Music performance is both a natural human activity, present in all societies, and one of the most complex and demanding cognitive challenges that the human mind can undertake.
Unlike most other sensory-motor activities, music performance requires precise timing of several hierarchically organized actions,
as well as precise control over pitch interval production, implemented through diverse effectors according to the instrument involved.
We review the cognitive neuroscience literature of both motor and auditory domains,
highlighting the value of studying interactions between these systems in a musical context,
and propose some ideas concerning the role of the premotor cortex in integration of higher order features of music with appropriately timed and organized actions.
Early music lessons boost brain development
Date:February 12, 2013
Musical training before the age of seven has a significant effect on the development of the brain, showing that those who began early had stronger connections between motor regions -- the parts of the brain that help you plan and carry out movements.
How Music Helps Brain Development in Infants
arents know that shakers quickly become their babies’ favorite toys, and singing a lullaby will quickly lull their infants to sleep. What parents might not realize is that these musical foundations are changing their infant’s brain in ways that will benefit them throughout their lives. Psychologist Dr. Frances Rauscher and neuroscientist Gordon Shaw have conducted many studies with young children investigating the relationship between music and brain development, all of which suggest that early exposure to music increases abilities in many other areas, including math and language. Subsequent research at Brigham Young University suggests music has a positive impact on the physical development of premature infants and can promote calmness in babies.
According to ZerotoThree.org, the first three years of a child’s life are the most crucial for brain development. While a newborn’s brain is only 25 percent of its adult weight, by age 3, it grows dramatically and builds pathways and connections, called synapses, between its numerous cells. According to Dr. Diane Bales, Ph.D., author of "Building Baby's Brain: The Role of Music," the synapses used for classical music are similar to those used for spatial and temporal reasoning, which are skills needed for math. Just listening to classical music can “turn on” the synapses.
A study published in “Nature” magazine in 1993 received an influx of attention; this study investigated college students who showed increased intelligence after exposure to music by Mozart. The so-called “Mozart Effect” was misinterpreted to suggest listening to classical music made people and even infants smarter, but research by psychologist Dr. Frances Rauscher and neuroscientist Gordon Shaw further solidified the notion that early music exposure does improve cognitive abilities. These researchers found preschoolers who took music lessons did better at spatial and temporal reasoning tasks than those who received computer lessons. While this research is based on preschool children, subsequent studies such as those at Brigham Young University suggest similar benefits can be seen by engaging children with music during their infant years, when their brains are developing the most. Dr. Diane Bales suggests that listening to classical music has only temporary benefits, while musical instruction has more long-lasting effects because it actually creates new pathways in the brain.
According to the Center for Music Learning at the University of Texas at Austin, infants can categorize auditory stimuli, such as recognizing that two or more stimuli are different; their research showed infants at seven months could discriminate timbre and melody and could recognize a melody when played on a single instrument. Singing is an ideal way to foster language development, and the exploration of words and rhymes through a familiar tune enhances memory. An infant’s brain is not fully developed at birth, and he needs sensory input for the cells to build and connect. Music provides an auditory means of stimulation that can also carry educational concepts, such as language, which will develop as an infant obtains cognitive skills.
While infants show a predilection for music played while still in the womb, classical music often proves better for brain development than the mother’s favorite rock and roll tunes. Since classical music is more complex in structure, instrumentation and harmony, it primes the brain with pathways needed for other cognitive tasks. According to Dr. Diane Bales, any kind of music helps build musical pathways in the brain and may help infants relax. The Washington Times suggests that whether it's classical, pop, jazz, blues or Mom's favorite tunes, it's the complexity of music itself that offers brain-building benefits.
The general concern deals with seeing somebody playing an instrument in a scene. It is very rare to see somebody in a film that really looks like they are playing the instrument they are holding. I will grant that it is unrealistic to expect a leading player who has devoted his/her training to the art of acting to be fully proficient on an instrument that a role may require, but more often than not, they are simply given the instrument without any sort of coaching on how the instrument should be held or where their hands should be when the instrument is making a certain sound. When this happens in a film, my ability to suspend disbelief goes right out the window never to return. This is not limited to lead players, however. Often a band that is supposed to be playing music in the background is made up of actors that have no conception of the operation of the arcane devices they are holding. To add insult to injury, the soundtrack seldom matches up to the instrumentation of the band. This movie does an admirable job at keeping things believable in this regard. The instruments are held correctly. The hands of the actors move as they should. With only a few exceptions, the instruments you hear are the ones that are on screen. Even in terms of historical ideas of ornamentation and execution, this movie has done its homework. It seems that most moviemakers regard music as trivial, and thus, they make little effort for accuracy where it is concerned. This movie, perhaps, works harder at it because of its subject matter, which leads me to part two of this diatribe.