2、报考博士阅读通晓(20十年报考大学生阅读明白Part A Text 一)
Section 1 Use of English
Of all the changes that have taken place in English-language newspapers during the past quarter-century, perhaps the most far-reaching has been the inexorable decline in the scope and seriousness of their arts coverage。
Directions:Readthe following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank andmark [A], [B], [C] or [D] on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
It is difficult to the point of impossibility for the average reader under the age of forty to imagine a time when high-quality arts criticism could be found in most big-city newspapers. Yet a considerable number of the most significant collections of criticism published in the 20th century consisted in large part of newspaper reviews. To read such books today is to marvel at the fact that their learned contents were once deemed suitable for publication in general-circulation dailies。
Though not biologically related, friends are as "related" as fourth cousins, sharing about 1% of genes. That is 1 a study published from the University of California and Yale University in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, has 2 。
We are even farther removed from the unfocused newspaper reviews published in England between the turn of the 20th century and the eve of World War II, at a time when newsprint was dirt-cheap and stylish arts criticism was considered an ornament to the publications in which it appeared. In those far-off days, it was taken for granted that the critics of major papers would write in detail and at length about the events they covered. Theirs was a serious business, and even those reviewers who wore their learning lightly, like George Bernard Shaw and Ernest Newman, could be trusted to know what they were about. These men believed in journalism as a calling, and were proud to be published in the daily press. "So few authors have brains enough or literary gift enough to keep their own end up in journalism," Newman wrote, "that I am tempted to define ‘journalism’ as ‘a term of contempt applied by writers who are not read to writers who are’."
The study is a genome-wide analysis conducted 3 1932 unique subjects which 4 pairs of unrelated friends and unrelated strangers. The same people were used in both 5 。
Unfortunately, these critics are virtually forgotten. Neville Cardus, who wrote for the Manchester Guardian from 1917 until shortly before his death in 1975, is now known solely as a writer of essays on the game of cricket. During his lifetime, though, he was also one of England’s foremost classical-music critics, and a stylist so widely admired that his Autobiography (1947) became a best-seller. He was knighted in 1967, the first music critic to be so honored. Yet only one of his books is now in print, and his vast body of writings on music is unknown save to specialists。
While 1% may seem 6 , it is not so to a geneticist. As co-author of the study James Fowler, professor of medical genetics at UC San Diego says, "Most people do not even 7 their fourth cousins but somehow manage to select as friends the people who 8 our kin."
Is there any chance that Cardus’s criticism will enjoy a revival? The prospect seems remote. Journalistic tastes had changed long before his death, and postmodern readers have little use for the richly upholstered Vicwardian prose in which he specialized. Moreover, the amateur tradition in music criticism has been in headlong retreat. (429 words)
The team also developed a "friendship score" which can predict who will be your friend based on their genes。
首先局地 听力 (共两节，满分三十多分)
1. It is indicated in Paragraphs 1 and 2 that
The study 9 found that the genes for smell were something shared in friends but not genes for immunity. Why this similarity in olfactory genes is difficult to explain, for now. 10 , as the team suggests, it draws us to similar environments but there is more 11 it. There could be many mechanisms working in tandem that 12 us in choosing genetically similar friends 13 than "functional kinship" of being friends with 14 !
[A] arts criticism has disappeared from big-city newspapers。
One of the remarkable findings of the study was that the similar genes seem to be evolving 15 than other genes. Studying this could help 16 why human evolution picked pace in the last 30,000 years, with social environment being a major 17 factor。
[B] English-language newspapers used to carry more arts reviews。
The findings do not simply corroborate people’s 18 to befriend those of similar 19 backgrounds, say the researchers. Though all the subjects were drawn from a population of European extraction, care was taken to 20 that all subjects, friends and strangers were taken from the same population. The team also controlled the data to check ancestry of subjects。
[C] high-quality newspapers retain a large body of readers。
1 A what B why C how D when
- Who does the woman suggest the man speak to?
[D] young readers doubt the suitability of criticism on dailies。
2 A defended B concluded C withdrawn D advised
A. Mr. Brown. B. Mr. Smith. C. Mrs. Brown.
2. Newspaper reviews in England before World War II were characterized by
3 A for B with C by D on
- What is the woman probably going to do next?
[A] free themes。
4 A separated B sought C compared D connected
A. Go over the list. B. Go shopping. C. Go for an outing.
[B] casual style。
5 A tests B objects C samples D examples
- What’s the possible relationship between the two speakers?
[C] elaborate layout。
6 A insignificant B unexpected C unreliable D incredible
A. Classmates. B. Teacher and student. C. Principal and student.
[D] radical viewpoints。
7 A visit B miss C know D seek
- Where does this conversation probably take place?
3. Which of the following would Shaw and Newman most probably agree on?
8 A surpass B influence C favor D resemble
A. In an office. B. In a garage. C. In a taxi.
[A] It is writers’ duty to fulfill journalistic goals。
9 A again B also C instead D thus
- When will the man begin to stay in the hotel?
[B] It is contemptible for writers to be journalists。
10 A Meanwhile B Furthermore C Likewise D Perhaps
A. On Tuesday. B. On Wednesday. C. On Friday.
[C] Writers are likely to be tempted into journalism。
11 A about B to C from D like
[D] Not all writers are capable of journalistic writing。
12 A limit B observe C confuse D drive
4. What can be learned about Cardus according to the last two paragraphs?
13 A according to B rather than C regardless of D along with
[A] His music criticism may not appeal to readers today。
14 A chances B responses C benefits D missions
- What does the boy want to do?
[B] His reputation as a music critic has long been in dispute。
15 A faster B slower C later D earlier
A. Go abroad. B. Live by himself. C. Find a job.
[C] His style caters largely to modern specialists。
16 A forecast B remember C express D understand
- What does the mother expect the boy to do?
[D] His writings fail to follow the amateur tradition。
17 A unpredicted B contributory C controllable D disruptive
A. Rely on himself. B. Stay with them. C.Sell newspapers.
5. What would be the best title for the text?
18 A tendency B decision C arrangement D endeavor
- How does the mother feel about the boy’s job?
[A] Newspapers of the Good Old Days
19 A political B religious C ethnic D economic
A. Proud. B. Hopeful. C. Doubtful.
[B] The Lost Horizon in Newspapers
20 A see B show C prove D tell
[C] Mournful Decline of Journalism
- What season is it now?
[D] Prominent Critics in Memory
1、A what 本句的句意是：这正是南达科他大学和印度孟买理法大学在U.S.国家中国科学技术大学学报告上同步公布的切磋成果。第一个空考查表语从句的教导词。
A. Spring. B. Autumn. C. Winter.
二、B concluded 本句的句意是：这就是马萨诸塞高校和洛桑联邦理工科高校在美利坚合众国国家科高校报告上联手发布的研讨成果。第二个空为针对从句谓语进行的词义考查。
- What do we know about the man?
三、D on 本句前半句的句意是：那项研商是一个依据1玖3十六个非凡个体的基因组广谱分析。调查Conduct on词组，举办。从句意为：它对成对儿的非亲缘朋友和别人实行比较。
A. He likes sports. B. He hates the cold weather. C.He never does housework.
第一题是人物观点题，答案是[D]，类似[D]的音信方可从第3段最终一句的So few authors …中找到。
4、C compared 比较，依照上下文及后一句的same知道，相比为最棒。
- What is the weather like now?
伍、C samples 词义题，样本，C为最棒选用。
A. Cloudy. B. Sunny. C. Snowy.
陆、A insignificant 词义题，壹%，以及背后的not so转折，决断，A insignificant不显然，为最棒选取。
7、C know 句意为：一些人纵然并不认得她们第伍代的表亲，但她们选拔的意中人却和那几个亲属颇有相似之处。
- What’s wrong with the man?
八、D resemble 词义题，和上叁个空产生转折。
A. He broke his left arm. B. He broke his right leg. C. His left foot hurts.
分裂点：GMAT的一、二、叁题分别为逻辑结构题、类比推理题和逻辑框架题；而20十报考大学生Text 壹后面包车型客车一、2、四题均属细节明白题。2010年20道读书掌握题中只有壹道(3一题)是逻辑结构题，规范的推理剖断题①道也绝非，细节领会题的难度又专门大、缺少区分度，以致产生整个阅读掌握Part A试题信度和效度的紧缺。由此精晓反映出二者命题专家所持的例外的命题指点观念：U.S.A.博来霉素AT命题专家重申考核考生的悬空思维手艺、宏观把握语篇结构与语段结构的技巧和类比推理工科夫，由此题型中逻辑结构题、类比推理题和逻辑框架题占的百分相当的大；而2010报考大学生命题专家则重申考核考生对事实性细节的明白手艺，所以类比推理题和逻辑框架题一道也尚无。当然，仅从1篇小说后的5道题的等级次序相比很难得出周到的结论，但从二个侧面却得以窥见两者之间在命题思路方面包车型的士出入。
9、B also 上下文逻辑题，发掘了，还开采了。Also为最棒选项。
- What did the doctor tell the man to do?
10、D Perhaps 结合上下文：这一风貌很难解释，前边接原因，原因“大概”是……最适合文章大体。
A. Touch the ground. B. Lie in bed all the time. C. Have an X-ray.
1一、B to 介词题，意为：就好像这一个调研团队所开掘的，这么些因素不仅把大家带到详细的条件中来，更有局地深档次的熏陶。
- How soon will the man recover at least?
21. In the opening paragraph, the author introduces his topic by
1贰、D drive 词义题，依据上下文，对大家发出震慑，驱使大家……drive为最好选取。
A. In about 2 weeks. B. In about a week. C. In about 3 days.
[A] posing a contrast。
一三、B rather than 逻辑题，基因上相似的，功用上相似的，贰者相持无法同时设有，rather than不是…而是最适合。
[B] justifying an assumption。
1肆、C benefits 跟“作用”搭配，选个褒义词，带来利润的，最棒。
- Why has the man never chatted online before?
[C] making a comparison。
一伍、A faster 词义题，依照后半句解释，那就是为何“picked pace”加快，这里只好选faster，一些比别的一些提高得更加快，符合文意。
A. He has got too old a computer.
[D] explaining a phenomenon. [逻辑框架题]
1六、D understand 词义题，那些切磋能够援助大家精通2个真情。
B. He hasn’t bought a computer.
30. The author associates the issue of global warming with that of smoking because
一七、B contributory 本句意为：社会条件是最重大的二个要素。Contributory进献，最棒。
C. He has no interest in chatting online.
[A] they both suffered from the government’s negligence。
1八、A tendency 结协小说大旨，选用基因相似的人做相爱的人是广泛现象，tendency趋势倾向最符合。
- What does the man ask the woman to download for him?
[B] a lesson from the latter is applicable to the former。
1玖、C ethnic 同义替换，基因背景相似，种族的，民族的，最适合。
A. MP3 files. B. New software. C. A TV show.
[C] the outcome from the latter aggravates the former。
20、A see 本句意为：即便具有的商讨对象都取自欧洲血统，研商者也花心境确认保证了富有(用于比对的)朋友和第一者也源自该血统中的同1支系。
- What does the woman tell about Friends’ forums?
[D] both of them have turned from bad to worse. [逻辑框架题]
Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension
A. Some of the Friends’ stars are sure to show up there.
32. By referring to the limbic system, the author intends to show
B. One can chat to people who have common interests.
[A] its function in our dreams。
Directions：Read the following four texts. Answer the questions after each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)
C. One may clearly know who you’re talking to there.
[B] the mechanism of REM sleep。
[C] the relation of dreams to emotions。
King Juan Carlos of Spain once insisted kings don’t abdicate, they die in their sleep. But embarrassing scandals and the popularity of the republican left in the recent Euro-elections have forced him to eat his words and stand down. So, dies the Spanish crisis suggest that monarchy is seeing its last days? Does that mean the uniting is on the wall for all European royals, with their magnificent uniforms and majestic lifestyles?
- How many times does one’s heart beat per minute during aerobic exercise?
[D] its difference from the prefrontal cortex. [逻辑结构题]
The Spanish case previous arguments both for and against monarchy when public opinion is particularly. Polarized, as it was following the end of the France regime, monarchs can rise above “mere” politics and “embody” a spirit of national unity。
A. 140. B. 100. C. 114.
40. According to the last paragraph, “paper plates” is to “china” as
It is this apparent transcendence of politics that explains monarchs continuing popularity as heads of states. And so, the Middle East expected, Europe is the most monarch-infested region is the world, with 10 kingdoms not counting Vatican city and Andorra. But unlike their absolutist counterparts in the Gulf and Asia, most royal families have survived because they allow voters to avoid the difficult search for a non-controversial but respect public figure。
- What is the man’s advice?
[A] “temporary” is to “permanent”。
Even so, kings and queens undoubtedly have a downside, symbolic of national unity as they claim to be, their very history—and sometimes the way they behave today-embodies outdated and indefensible privileges and inequalities. At a time when Thomes Piketty and other ecumenists are warning of rising inequality and the increasing power of inherited wealth, it is bizarre that wealthy aristocratic families should still be the symbolic heart of modern democratic families should still be the symbolic heart of modern democratic states. The most successful monarchies strive to abandon or hide their old aristocratic ways. Prince and princess have day-jobs and ride bicycles, not horses (or helicopters). Even so, these are wealthy families who party with the international 1%， and media intrusiveness makes it increasingly difficult to maintain the right image。
A. Eating big meals every day.
[B] “radical” is to “conservative”。
While Europe’s monarchies will no doubt be smart enough to strive for some time to come, it is the British royals who have most to fear from the Spanish example。
B. Five small meals every day.
[C] “functional” is to “artistic”。
It is only the Queen who has preserved the monarchy reputation with her rather ordinary (if well-healed) granny style. The danger will come with Charles, who has both an expensive taste of lifestyle and a pretty hierarchical view of the world. He has failed to understand that monarchies have largely survived because they provide a service—as non-controversial and non-political heads of state. Charles ought to know that as English history shows, it is kings of republicans, who are the monarchy’s worst enemies。
C. Eating no food at night.
[D] “humble” is to “noble”. [细节类比题]
21、according to the first two paragraphs, king Juan Carl of span
- Which of the following is mentioned in the talk?
[A] used to enjoy high public support
A. Boxing. B. Walking. C. Cycling.
[B] was unpopular among European royals
[C] ended his reign in embarrassment
注：卡那霉素AT是 Graduate Management Admission Test (管理类研考)的缩写方式，是美利坚同同盟者指导考试服务处(EST)担负的考试之一。
[D] eased his relationship with his rivals
22、monarchs are kept as head of state in Europe mostly
- _____news that the national football team was disqualified for the next World Cup finals came as no___ surprise at all .
[A] owing to their undoubted and respectable status
A. /;a B. The; / C. A; a D. The; a
[B] to achieve a balance between tradition and reality
- Of all the methods they provided, _____ is of any help for solving the math problem.
[C] to give voters more public figures to look up to
A. none B. no one C. nothing D. neither
[D] due to their everlasting political embodiment
- Considering your income, you should be able to _____at least twenty dollars a week.
23. Which of the following is shown to be odd, according to Paragraph 4?
A. put forward B. put in C. put down D. put aside
[A] Aristocrats’ excessive reliance on inherited wealth。
- Is English Literature a(n)____ lesson, or does everyone have to learn it?
[B] The simple lifestyle of the aristocratic families。
A. potential B. typical C. optional D. critical
[C] The role of the nobility in modern democracies。
- If there hadn’t been so much smog in Beijing, we______the beautiful scenery across the Tiananmen Square.
[D] The nobility’s adherence to their privileges。
A. enjoyed B. would have enjoyed C. had enjoyed D.would enjoy
24. The British royals “have most to fear” because Charles
26.Our special thanks go to thousands of volunteers, without ______tireless work, none of this would be possible.
[A] takes a tough line on political issues。
A. whose B. which C. whom D. that
[B] fails to change his lifestyle as advised。
- --- Are you fond of watching TV?
[C] takes republicans as his potential allies。
--- Not a bit. I would sit alone in the dark ______I would watch TV.
[D] fails to adapt himself to his future role。
A. before B. if C. while D. after
25. Which of the following is the best title of the text?
- ______ at the door before you enter my room, please.
[A] Carlos, Glory and Disgrace Combined
A. Knock B. Knocking C. Knocked D. To knock
[B] Carlos, a Lesson for All European Monarchs
- I lost sight of Wang Ping when we reached _______looked like a large market.
[C] Charles, Slow to React to the Coming Threats
A. that B. which C. what D. where
[D] Charles, Anxious to Succeed to the Throne
30.The officer gave orders that anyone_______a gun should be reported to the police station.
A. sees take B. see taken C. seeing take D. seen taking
21 D ended his reign in embarrassment
- ---Are you content with her lecture?
---Nowhere near that. It .
依照注重词King Juan Carlos of Spain 定位到第一段率先和第一句。But embarrassing scandals…have forced him to eat his words and stand down. 此处stand down译为吐弃席位。由此D ended his reign in embarrassment是原来的小说内容的平等替换。
A. may have been good B. couldn’t have been worse
22 A owing to their undoubted and respectable status
C. can’t be better D. must be better
- ---What’s the matter with John? He has been sitting there for hours.
依照入眼词定位到第一段率先句it is this apparent …that explains …as heads of state。和第贰句But unlike their absolutist…most royal families have survived because they allow voters to avoid the difficult search for ...respected public figure. 绝大很多皇室家族使得选民幸免了索求受人远瞻的公大千世界物的麻烦。因而A owing to their undoubted and respectable status是原来的书文内容的等同替换。
---A postcard from his father______an attack of home-sickness in him.
23 B the role of the nobility in modern democracies
A. took up B. set off C. brought in D. built up
- Nowadays food safety is a big problem and nobody can guarantee all foods are safe to us, but food produced in the normal companies is ______better.